WannaCry: What is a Ransomware and how does it work?

A ransomware is a software which scrambles information stored on a computer system to make it inaccessible. The process of scrambling is done through known methods of encryption. The purpose is to then ask for an amount of money to decrypt valuable information.   So how does ransomware work? How does it get through? Imagine you hired […]

How does secure socket layer (SSL/TLS) work? Why do retail websites require https?

To answer what is secure socket layer and how it keeps websites secure it is important to understand the making of the Internet. The internet in turn is an abstract concept meaning the interconnected network of computers across the globe. Computers interact with each other to create services necessary for us. To start off, you […]

A brief history of the internet, cryptography, cryptanalysis and encryption laws of India

The internet Thanks to the internet you are reading this article right now. How did the internet get to where it is right today? There is so much history we cannot possibly get it together in this short article. The internet actually got a start about 50 years ago, and computers at that time filled […]

What are digital signatures? Signing and verification – Relevant Indian Laws

Digital Signatures are considered to be more secure than the traditional ink signatures we all are used to. This is because ink signatures can be copied manually and exact duplicates can also be created through various ways. However, digital signatures can not be extracted, copied, or even stored. This immutability of digital signatures accords them a more […]

Understanding Asymmetric Cryptography, Public Key, Private Key and the RSA Algorithm

Encryption as explained earlier is simply substitution of letters with numbers and then using complex mathematical functions to alter the pattern of numbers. This article is about understanding Asymmetric Cryptography, Public Key, Private Key and the RSA Algorithm. Encryption has been there from a long time and symmetric key or secret key cryptography had a monopoly […]

Encryption and Symmetric Cryptography – How is data secured electronically?

Computers got popular mostly as a mode of storage and communication. And as the relevance of computers grew in everyday life there arose the need to secure stored data. Encryption is not the creation or function of the internet or of computers. Encryption has existed since humans invented communication. A text written in Mandarin is analogous to an encrypted […]

What is digital fingerprint and hashing? And how is it generated?

To start with digital fingerprints or hashing you need to understand what is a fingerprint and what is digital (no kidding).   What is a fingerprint? Normally a fingerprint in biology and biometrics is the unique pattern of whorls and lines on the fingertip of a human being. For a while forget all that. Just consider […]

What is Phishing or Spoofing? Affixing legal liability through Indian Laws

Internet developed rapidly leaving little or no scope for its terminologies to develop. Most internet terms and phrases are English loanwords most analogous to the concept being described. Phishing as a concept is analogous to fishing where predators wait for unsuspecting victims to fall prey to fraudulent offers.   Phishing in English Phishing requires three independent […]